Circulating T cell profiles associate with enterotype signatures underlying hematological malignancy relapses

Nicolas Vallet, Maud Salmona, Jeanne Malet-Villemagne, Maxime Bredel, Louise Bondeelle, Simon Tournier, Séverine Mercier-Delarue, Stéphane Cassonnet, Brian Ingram, Régis Peffault de Latour, Anne Bergeron, Gérard Socié, Jérome Le Goff, Patricia Lepage, David Michonneau

Early administration of azithromycin after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was shown to increase the relapse of hematological malignancies. To determine the impact of azithromycin on the post-transplant gut ecosystem and its influence on relapse, we characterized overtime gut bacteriome, virome, and metabolome of 55 patients treated with azithromycin or a placebo. We describe four enterotypes and the network of associated bacteriophage species and metabolic pathways. One enterotype associates with sustained remission. One taxon from Bacteroides specifically associates with relapse, while two from Bacteroides and Prevotella correlate with complete remission. These taxa are associated with lipid, pentose, and branched-chain amino acid metabolic pathways and several bacteriophage species. Enterotypes and taxa associate with exhausted T cells and the functional status of circulating immune cells. These results illustrate how an antibiotic influences a complex network of gut bacteriaviruses, and metabolites and may promote cancer relapse through modifications of immune cells.

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